Bengal Cats are a relatively new breed of cat. Originally created by crossing an Asian Leopard Cat with a domestic cat. The domestic Bengal derives its name from the Latin name of its wild ancestor, Felis Bengalensis (Asian Leopard Cat). This cat is not from the unrelated Bengal tiger.
The goal in developing the domestic Bengal cat breed was to preserve a strong physical resemblance to its beautiful wild ancestor and at the same time the new domestic breed was designed to be a pleasant and trustworthy family companion. Thus the conformation of Bengal cats is definitely reminiscent of its ancestors.
Bengal cats have "wild-looking" markings, such as large spots, rosettes and a light/white belly, with a body structure reminiscent of the Asian Leopard Cat. The Bengal's rosetted spots occur only on the back and sides, with stripes elsewhere. The breed typically features "mascara" (horizontal striping alongside the eyes) and foreleg striping.
The Bengal is a medium to large, sleek and well muscled cat with its hind-quarters slightly higher than its shoulders and a thick tail that is carried low. Female Bengal cats average from 7 to 11 pounds at maturity and males average from 11 to 18 pounds at full growth.
There is no other breed of cat which displays the gold or pearl dusting effect (glitter) of the Bengal. The Bengal coat is short and dense, with a rich smooth, soft and silky feel, patterned in random spots or marbled, with a variety of acceptable colors.
Even the voice of the Bengal is different from that of other domestic cats. They can coo and chirp and like to jump and somersault. They also love to play with water!
The Bengal cat is usually either classed as a brown-spotted or snow-spotted (although there are more colors, brown and snow are the only colors of Bengal that the Governing Council of the Cat Fancy (GCCF) recognize.
Within brown Bengals, there are either marble or spotted markings. Snow Bengals are also either marble or spotted but are also divided into blue-eyed or AOC (Any Other Color) eyes.
The International Cat Association (TICA) recognizes several Bengal colours (brown, seal lynx point, mink, sepia, silver) and patterns (spotted and marbled) for competition.
In the New Traits class, other colors may be shown, as well as longhairs. Bengal cats have "wild-looking" markings, such as large spots, rosettes and a light/white belly and a body structure reminiscent of the Asian Leopard Cat.
After three generations from the original crossing, the breed usually acquires a gentle domestic cat temperament; however, for the typical pet owner, a Bengal cat kept as a pet should be at least four generations removed from the Leopard Cat.
The so-called "foundation cats" from the first three filial generations of breeding are usually reserved for breeding purposes or the specialty pet home environment.
The earliest mention of an ALC/domestic cross was in 1889, when Harrison Weir wrote in "Our Cats and All About Them":
There is a rich-coloured brown tabby hybrid to be seen at the Zoological Society Gardens in Regent's Park, between the wild cat of Bengal and a tabby she-cat.
It is handsome, but very wild. These hybrids, I am told, will breed again with tame variety or with others.
In 1927, Mr Boden-Kloss wrote to the magazine "Cat Gossip" regarding hybrids between wild and domestic cats in Malaya:
I have never heard of hybrids between Asian Leopard Cat and domestic cats.
One of the wild tribes of the Malay Peninsula has domesticated cats and I have seen the woman suckling bengalensis kittens, but I do not know whether the latter survive and breed with the others!
The earliest mention of a confirmed ALC/domestic cross was in 1934 in a Belgian scientific journal and in 1941 a Japanese cat publication printed an article about one that was kept as a pet.
Jean Mill (née Sugden), the person who was later a great influence of the development of the modern Bengal breed, submitted a term paper for her genetics class at UC Davis on the subject of cross breeding cats in 1946.
The 1960s was a period when many well known breeders, including Jean Sugden, produced ALC/domestic crosses, but records indicate that none of them took it past the F2 stage. Several zoos in Europe also produced a number of ALC crosses.
During this period there was an epidemic of feline leukemia virus and it became known that many wild cats seemed to have a natural immunity to the disease. As a result of this Loyola University began a research program in the 1970s to investigate if this natural immunity could be bred in or replicated.
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s there was a great deal of activity with hybrids, but there was no significant effort to create an actual breed from them. A number of Cat clubs formed, orienting on hybrids. A few oriented specifically on something William Engler, a member of the Long Island Ocelot Club and a breeder, called a Bengal.
Club newsletters were published, detailing the production of Bengals and Safaris (a domestic cat/Geoffroy's Cat cross) and members of these clubs bred some second and third generation Bengals. These were registered with the American Cat Fanciers Association (A.C.F.A.) in 1977 as experimental and were shown at several A.C.F.A. cat shows throughout the 1970s.
Around this time, Jean Mill began to renew her breeding efforts.
..I deliberately crossed leopard cats with domestic cats for several important reasons. At that time, wild cats were being exploited for the fur market. Nursing female leopard cats defending their nests were shot for their pelts and the cubs were shipped off to pet stores worldwide.
Unsuspecting cat lovers bought them, unaware of the danger, their unpleasant elimination habits and the unsuitability of keeping wild cats as pets. Most of the wild kittens from this era ended up in zoos or escaped onto city streets. I hoped that by putting a leopard coat on a domestic cat, the pet trade could be safely satisfied.
If fashionable women could be dissuaded from wearing furs that look like friends' pets, the diminished demand would result in less poaching of wild species.
She contacted Dr. Willard Centerwall in Riverside who had produced a number of using domestic tabbies at Loma Linda University for his Centerwall project into Feline Leukemia.
Once they had donated blood samples for his research, he needed homes for them. He gave Jean 4 hybrids. She later received another 5 hybrids from another source, but from the same Centerwall project.
Mill did not use local domestics to create her first Bengals. She felt the ALC was a genetically superior animal and wished to avoid weakening this element. Around 1982, Mill and her husband made a trip to India where a zoo curator showed them a feral Indian Mau.
This is how the famous rosetted domestic called "Millwood Tory of Delhi" came to be found in virtually all Bengal pedigrees.
Greg and Elizabeth Kent were also early breeders, who developed their own line of Bengal cats using ALCs and Egyptian Maus. This was a very successful line and many modern Bengals will find it in their pedigree.
Although it has become a popular breed, with over 60,000 cats registered with T.I.C.A., not all cat registries accept them - in particular the Cat Fanciers' Association, one of the largest cat registries in the world, does not accept any hybrids.
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